Deep learning architectures have been successfully applied in video-based health monitoring, to recognize distinctive variations in the facial appearance of subjects. To detect patterns of variation linked to depressive behavior, deep neural networks (NNs) typically exploit spatial and temporal information separately by, e.g., cascading a 2D convolutional NN (CNN) with a recurrent NN (RNN), although the intrinsic spatio-temporal relationships can deteriorate. With the recent advent of 3D CNNs like the convolutional 3D (C3D) network, these spatio-temporal relationships can be modeled to improve performance. However, the accuracy of C3D networks remain an issue when applied to depression detection. In this paper, the fusion of diverse C3D predictions are proposed to improve accuracy, where spatio-temporal features are extracted from global (full-face) and local (eyes) regions of subject. This allows to increasingly focus on a local facial region that is highly relevant for analyzing depression. Additionally, the proposed network integrates 3D Global Average Pooling in order to efficiently summarize spatio-temporal features without using fully-connected layers, and thereby reduce the number of model parameters and potential over-fitting. Experimental results on the Audio Visual Emotion Challenge (AVEC 2013 and AVEC 2014) depression datasets indicates that combining the responses of global and local C3D networks achieves a higher level of accuracy than state-of-the-art systems.
de Melo Wheidima Carneiro, Granger Eric, Hadid Abdenour
A4 Article in conference proceedings
Place of publication:
14th IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, FG 2019
W. C. de Melo, E. Granger and A. Hadid, “Combining Global and Local Convolutional 3D Networks for Detecting Depression from Facial Expressions,” 2019 14th IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face & Gesture Recognition (FG 2019), Lille, France, 2019, pp. 1-8. doi: 10.1109/FG.2019.8756568
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