From seen to Unseen

Text input is a very challenging task in the constrained screen real-estate of Augmented Reality headsets. Typical keyboards spread over multiple lines and occupy a significant portion of the screen. In this article, we explore the feasibility of single-line text entry systems for smartglasses. We first design FITE, a dynamic keyboard where the characters are positioned depending on their probability within the current input. However, the dynamic layout leads to mediocre text input and low accuracy. We then introduce HIBEY, a fixed 1-line solution that further decreases the screen real-estate usage by hiding the layout. Despite its hidden layout, HIBEY surprisingly performs much better than FITE, and achieves a mean text entry rate of 9.95 words per minute (WPM) with 96.06% accuracy, which is comparable to other state-of-the-art approaches. After 8 days, participants achieve an average of 13.19 WPM. In addition, HIBEY only occupies 13.14% of the screen real estate at the edge region, which is 62.80% smaller than the default keyboard layout on Microsoft Hololens.


Publication type:
B1 Journal article

Place of publication:

augmented reality, Keyboard-less, Text entry

19 March 2020

Full citation:
Lik Hang Lee, Tristan Braud, Kit Yung Lam, Yui Pan Yau, Pan Hui, From seen to unseen: Designing keyboard-less interfaces for text entry on the constrained screen real estate of Augmented Reality headsets, Pervasive and Mobile Computing, Volume 64, 2020, 101148, ISSN 1574-1192,


Read the publication here: