To achieve watermark synchronization from an image with perspective distortion is a challenge. This paper proposes a screen-cam robust and blind watermarking scheme for tile satellite images, which means we do not need any user interaction or additional information in watermark detection. To achieve this, at the watermark embedding side, we divide tiles into synchronization tiles and message tiles, and propose a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) based embedding method to cope with the quality degradation caused by screen-cam process. At the extraction side, based on the idea of template matching, we first use a synchronization response index to estimate an appropriate scale level and positions of embedded synchronization watermarks from the noise component, which is estimated by Wiener filter. Then, we propose verification, selection, and precise locations methods to ensure the effectiveness and accuracy of synchronization detection results. After that, we can extract the regions of message tiles. Finally, we extract watermark message based on the local max value from the DFT domain of the noise component. Experimental results demonstrate the validity of the proposed scheme against common attacks and screen-cam attack with a tripod as well as handhold shooting.
Chen Weitong, Zhu Changqing, Ren Na, Seppänen Tapio, Keskinarkaus Anja
A1 Journal article – refereed
Place of publication:
W. Chen, C. Zhu, N. Ren, T. Seppänen and A. Keskinarkaus, “Screen-Cam Robust and Blind Watermarking for Tile Satellite Images,” in IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 125274-125294, 2020, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3007689
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