Draft 6G White Paper – 30 April 2020

6G White Paper on Localization and Sensing

Executive Summary

This white paper explores future localization and sensing opportunities for beyond 5G wireless communication systems by identifying key technology enablers and discussing their underlying challenges, implementation issues, and identifying potential solutions. In addition, we present exciting new opportunities for localization and sensing applications, which will disrupt traditional design principles and revolutionize the way we live, interact with our environment, and do business. In contrast to 5G and earlier generations, localization and sensing will be built-in from the onset to both cope with specific applications and use cases, and support flexible and seamless connectivity.

Following the trend initiated in the 5G NR systems, 6G will continue to develop towards even higher frequency range, wider bandwidth, and massive antenna arrays. In turn, this enables sensing solutions with very fine range, Doppler, and angular resolution, as well as localization with cm-level accuracy. Moreover, new materials, device types, and reconfigurable surfaces will allow network operators to reshape and control the electromagnetic response of the environment. At the same time, machine learning and artificial intelligence will leverage the unprecedented availability of data and computing resources to tackle the biggest and hardest problems in wireless communication systems.

6G systems will be truly intelligent wireless systems that will not only provide ubiquitous communication but also empower high accuracy localization and high-resolution sensing services.  They will become the catalyst for this revolution by bringing about a new unique set of features and service capabilities, where localization and sensing will coexist with communication, continuously sharing the available resources in time, frequency and space. Applications such as THz imaging and spectroscopy have the potential to provide continuous, real-time physiological information via dynamic, non-invasive, contactless measurements for future digital health technologies. 6G SLAM methods will not only enable advanced XR applications but also enhance the navigation of autonomous objects such as vehicles and drones. In the convergent 6G radar and communication systems, both passive and active radars will simultaneously use and share information, to provide a rich and accurate virtual image of the environment. In 6G, intelligent context-aware networks will be capable of exploiting localization and sensing information to optimize deployment, operation, and energy usage with no or limited human intervention.

This white paper concludes by highlighting foundational research challenges, as well as implications and opportunities related to privacy, security, and trust. Addressing these challenges will undoubtedly require an inter-disciplinary and concerted effort from the research community.



  • Intelligent reflective surfaces for enhanced mapping and localization
  • Machine learning for intelligent localization and sensing
  • THz sensing and imaging
  • Simultaneous localization and mapping
  • Passive sensing using transmitters of opportunity
  • Radar and communications convergence
  • Context-aware localization systems
  • Security, privacy and trust for localization systems


List of Editors

  • Andre Bourdoux, IMEC, Belgium
  • Andre Noll Barreto, Germany
  • Barend van Liempd, IMEC, Belgium
  • Carlos de Lima, University ou Oulu, Finland
  • Davide Dardari, University of Bologna, Italy
  • Didier Belot​, CEA-LETI, France​
  • Elana-Simona Lohan, Tampere university, Finland
  • Gonzalo Seco-Granados, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain
  • Hadi Sarieddeen, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Saudi Arabia​
  • Henk Wymeersch, Chalmers University, Sweden
  • Jaakko Suutala, University ou Oulu, Finland
  • Jani Saloranta, University ou Oulu, Finland
  • Maxime Guillaud, Huawei Technologies Paris, France​
  • Minna Isomursu, University ou Oulu, Finland
  • Mikko Valkama, Tampere university, Finland
  • Muhammed Reza Kahar Aziz, Institut Teknologi Sumatera, Indonesia​
  • Raf Berkens. IMEC, Belgium
  • Tachporn Sanguanpuak, Tampere university, Finland
  • Tommy Svensson, Chalmers University, Sweden
  • Yang Miao, University of Twente, Netherlands
This draft white paper has been written by an international expert group, led by the Finnish 6G Flagship program at the University of Oulu, within a series of twelve 6G white papers to be published in their final format in June 2020.

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